I. CNC machine tools compared with ordinary CNC machine - digital control machine tools (Computer numerical control machine tools) for short, is a process control system with automated machine tools. CNC machine tool main components are: process and procedures for the preparation of the carrier, input devices, digital devices, drives and position detection device, auxiliary control devices, machine tools, CNC machine body numerical control system according to the instructions required, automatic completion of the spindle speed, feed rate, machine tool trajectory, and other auxiliary functions (such as automatic tool change, automatic cooling, etc.) control. It must be replaced by an ordinary servo system for machine tool feed system and control system can be achieved through the spindle axis automatic transmission. Therefore, in the mechanical structure, spindle CNC machine Branch pump feed gear box and the results are generally very simple; gears, shafts, bearings greatly reduced the number; motor spindle and ball screw can be connected directly without gear. In operation, it is not like an ordinary machine, as required by the operator to adjust the handle and variable speed, the operating mechanism is much simpler than the more general machine tools, and many machines do not even manual mechanical operating mechanism.In addition, most of CNC machine movements are assisted by the auxiliary function numerical control system (M function) to control, so commonly used in machine operation buttons less than normal, the operation more convenient and simple.
II. Domestic and international trends and analysis of current industry needs, the rapid development of CNC machine tools, high speed, high precision, complex, intelligent, parallel drive technology, and extreme, green has become the development trend of CNC machine tools and direction.
1. high speed with the automobile, defense, aviation and aerospace industry, aluminum and other high-speed development and application of new materials, processing of high-speed CNC machine tools have become increasingly demanding. Mainly the spindle speed, feed rate, processing speed, faster tool change
2. 2. High precision CNC machine tool accuracy requirement is now not limited to static geometric accuracy, machine tool motion accuracy, thermal deformation and vibration monitoring and compensation for increasing access to attention.
3. Functional composite meaning of the composite machine is implemented on a single machine or as much as possible to complete the finished product from rough processing of a variety of factors. Can be classified according to their structural features and process technology complex composite types. Complex process, such as boring and milling machine drilling composite - processing center, milling complex - turning centers, boring and milling drilling truck compound - compound machining centers; processes such as multi-faceted complex multi-axis machine tool machining tool and double-spindle complex turning center. Composite machine tools for processing, reducing the workpiece handling, replacement and adjustment of the auxiliary tool time and the error generated in the middle of the process, improve the precision ball grinding parts and shorten the manufacturing cycle and improve production efficiency and market reaction to the manufacturers capacity, compared with the traditional methods of production processes spread has obvious advantages.
4 intelligent control along with the development of artificial intelligence technology to meet manufacturing flexibility, manufacturing automation development needs of the intelligence of CNC machine tools has been improving. Include adaptive control process, processing parameters and selection of intelligent optimization and intelligent fault diagnosis and self-healing technology, intelligent fault and fault simulation playback, intelligent AC servo drives, intelligent 4M CNC systems.
5. Driver Parallel Parallel Kinematics Machine Tool serial mechanism to overcome the traditional quality of a large moving parts, the system stiffness is low, the tool can only feed along the fixed rail, operating degrees of freedom is low, not enough equipment, such as processing flexibility and mobility inherent defects in the machine tool spindle (usually the moving platform) and base (usually static platform) parallel connection between the multi-agency drive rod through the lever system in the length of the truss rod supporting the platform to obtain the corresponding degree of freedom movement, can be multi-axis CNC machining, assembly and measuring a variety of functions, to better meet the special part of the processing of complex, modular robot with a high degree of modern, light weight and speed and so on.
6. Extreme (large and miniaturization)
National defense, aviation, space industry development and energy and other infrastructure needs of large-scale industrial equipment, large and good performance of the CNC machine tool support. The ultra-precision processing technology and micro and nano technology is a strategic technology of the 21st century, to be able to adapt to the development of micro and nano miniature size and precision of new manufacturing processes and equipment, so the micro-machine tools, including micro-machining (turning, milling, grinding) machines , micro EDM, micro laser cutting machines and micro presses, and other demand is gradually increasing.
7 high reliability of traditional CNC machine tools and ball grinding machine compared to a numerical control system and the corresponding increase in monitoring devices, application of a large number of electrical, hydraulic and electromechanical devices, easy to lead to increased probability of failure; industrial power grid voltage fluctuations and interference on the reliability of CNC machine tools is extremely unfavorable, and CNC machining of more complex surface parts, the processing cycle is long, requiring MTBF 2 million hours.
8 8 process with increasingly stringent green environmental and resource constraints, manufacturing and processing of the green more and more important, while Chinas resources, environmental issues are particularly prominent. Therefore, no or little use in recent years, the cooling fluid, to achieve dry cutting, cutting energy saving machine semi-emerging, and evolving them. In the 21st century, the green manufacturing trend will accelerate the development of a variety of energy saving tools, occupy more of the world market.
CNC machine tools is the industrys mother ship, and only through the necessary tools to produce parts and components industries, machine tool industry is directly related to the development of all walks of life, on the contrary, these applications are related to the development of the industry development of machine tools , lets take a look at what industry and machine manufacturing are inextricably linked.
Aviation industry, aircraft wings, fuselage, tail and engine parts manufacturing and other needs of a large number of high-speed five-axis machining centers, gantry mobile high-speed machining centers, precision CNC lathes, precision horizontal machining centers, multi-axis boring and milling centers, precision gears CNC machine tools and thread.
Shipbuilding industry needed manufacturing diesel heavy-duty body, super-heavy and heavy-duty boring and milling CNC gantry milling machine floor and large CNC lathes and milling centers, large CNC grinding machine, crankshaft milling machines, grinding ball milling centers and large crankshaft crankshaft grinder .
Automotive industry needs a large number of efficient, high-performance, dedicated CNC machines and flexible production lines, such as processing for the engine to high speed horizontal machining center-based flexible production lines, CNC machine tools and other special crankshaft machining. Needs a large number of auto parts production CNC lathes, vertical horizontal machining center, CNC grinding and CNC gear spherical efficient machine tools and other power generation equipment manufacturing industry needs heavy-duty CNC gantry milling machine, large floor milling machine, large CNC lathes, milling blade root slot dedicated NC machine tools and blades, power transmission equipment manufacturing industry needs to CNC lathes, machining centers, CNC boring machine and so on.
Metallurgical equipment manufacturing focused on solving the continuous casting and rolling equipment manufacturing, demand large gantry milling machine, large CNC lathes and other equipment. Of ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing, nonferrous metal smelting and rolling processing scale steady and rapid growth in recent years, as China has become a big manufacturing country, smelting industry is still growing trend.
Needs a large number of small and medium sized construction machinery manufacturing industry such as CNC lathes CNC machine tools and medium-sized machining centers, CNC milling machines and gear cutting machine tools.
Demand for high-speed CNC milling machine tooling industry, coordinate measuring machines, precision EDM, high-precision machining centers, precision grinding machines and other electronic information equipment manufacturing industry needs a large number of small precision CNC machine tools: such as high speed milling center, high-speed machining centers, small precision lathe , small precision punching, precision and ultra precision machining special CNC machine tools and precision EDM and so on.